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Early Stage 1

Early Stage One





In English, students learn to read, write, talk and listen. They learn about English language and literature, how language varies according to context and how to communicate to a range of audiences for different purposes. They learn to read for information and for pleasure. They learn about poetry, novels and plays. They gain a sound grasp of language structures, punctuation, spelling and grammar.

In Kindergarten

  • listen to and follow simple instructions involving one step
  • give short talks and express ideas, eg tell news, describe a favourite toy or pet
  • begin developing reading and comprehension skills, eg recognise simple sight words, recognise most sounds of the alphabet, use illustrations and picture clues to make predictions about stories when reading
  • write simple words using letters and sounds to help spellout known words, eg ‘d – o – g’
  • write simple sentences, eg ‘I made a cake’
  • begin to use word processing software to write simple sentences
  • recognise grammatical patterns such as action verb and nouns in a group, eg when the teacher reads to class from a ‘big book’


Mathematics develops students’ thinking, understanding, competence and confidence with numbers, shapes and measurement. Students learn to add, subtract, divide and multiply whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They learn to measure time and calculate with money. They learn geometry, algebra and how to work with data and graphs.

In Kindergarten

  • count aloud to 30 and recognise numbers from 1 to 20
  • manipulate objects such as counters to help add and subtract numbers
  • recognise the value of currency, eg 20 cent piece, five dollar note
  • count backwards from a given number in the range 0 to 20
  • name the days of the week and seasons
  • tell the time to the hour, eg four o’clock
  • identify and name simple shapes, eg circles, squares
  • use positional terms, eg between, under, right, left
  • recognise that halves are equal parts

Science and Technology

Science and Technology develops students’ skills in thinking, investigating and problem-solving. It gives them knowledge and skills in scientific investigation, design and applied technology. This subject builds on the curiosity children have about their natural and built environments.

In Kindergarten

  • design and make simple plans to show things such as their house and toys
  • show how things move by push and pull actions
  • talk about the different needs and wants of animals and sort models or pictures according to needs and wants
  • talk about their environment, including features such as clouds, weather and day and night
  • talk about how they can look after their environment
  • talk about different forms of energy and identify its use in daily life

Human Society and Its Environment (HSIE)

In Human Society and Its Environment (HSIE) students learn about history, geography, civics and citizenship. They investigate their personal and community identity, and gain an understanding of their nation and its place in the world. They learn to participate effectively in maintaining and improving the quality of their society and environment.

In Kindergarten

  • tell stories about family heritage and use language such as ‘time’, ‘change’ and ‘place’
  • talk about how families are similar and different, and how the needs of individuals are met in a family
  • get involved in class discussions about special events and cultural celebrations, eg Anzac Day
  • talk about the different roles and responsibilities in the classroom, school and home
  • do things that show care for their home, classroom, school and/or environment
  • listen to Dreaming stories
  • talk about their home’s features and location

Creative Arts

Creative Arts gives students experiences in the visual arts, music, drama and dance. They have opportunities to explore their creativity in each of these areas. They learn to appreciate the meanings and values that each artform offers. They perform and express themselves through the visual arts, music, drama and dance.

In Kindergarten

  • make their own pieces of art about real and imagined experiences using materials such as paints, watercolours, sponges, crayons, brushes and sticks
  • make simple 3-D constructions with boxes and use playdough or clay to create models
  • perform dance and drama with movement and expression
  • sing, play and move to music, and experiment with sound
  • copy the beat of music using clapping, tapping or percussion instruments

Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE)

Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) develops the knowledge, skills and attitudes students need to lead healthy, active and fulfilling lives. Students learn about the importance of good food and regular exercise. They learn how bodies grow and change over time. They learn skills to play individual and team sports, and the values of sportsmanship and teamwork.

In Kindergarten

  • become aware of safe and unsafe places and situations, eg near roads or water
  • identify people who can help, and describe actions such as ‘no, go, tell’ that might be taken in unsafe situations
  • label different parts of the body and name their functions, eg ears are for hearing
  • identify how people care for each other
  • participate in regular physical activity through creative play and minor games
  • learn and practise fundamental movement skills such as hopping and jumping